What is gluten? | Gastrointestinal system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

What is gluten? | Gastrointestinal system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

– Nowadays when you take
a stroll down the aisle at your local grocery store you’ll notice that a lot of foods are labeled as Gluten free. In fact, in 2014, the U.S. sales of Gluten
free labeled products was estimated to be
about 23 billion dollars. So what exactly is Gluten and why is everybody talking about it? Well, from a biological standpoint Gluten is composed of
two different proteins. There is gliadin which I’ll
represent as these blue circles. And there’s glutenin which I’ll represent as these red strings. These two together are going
to form what’s called gluten. Now gluten is the main protein composite of a lot of the grains that you eat. This includes things
Wheat, Barley, and Rye. And this is really important
because these are found in a lot of the foods
that people typically eat. For example, you may
see it in Bread, Pasta, Salad Dressings, and even Sausages. So this is just a handful
of the many, many, many different types of foods
that contains these grains. And by extension will contain the gluten. Now why is gluten important in healthcare? It’s because there are
three major conditions in which gluten can cause problems. The first is known as Celiac Disease. Celiac Disease is an Autoimmune Disease in which the body’s own Immune System attacks the Small Intestine. It isn’t exactly a new condition because it was first
described in the Late 1800s. And in addition to that,
it’s actually quite rare. It affects about one for
every 70 to 300 people depending on which country you live in. In the U.S. that’s equivalent
to about 2.1 million people. The second major condition
is having an allergy to the grains that contain gluten. So much like how many
people have allergies to things like peanuts or eggs a lot of people can have
allergies to these grains. However, this is even less
common than Celiac Disease. So if Celiac Disease and Grain Allergies are relatively rare, why is
everybody talking about gluten? The reason is because
of the third condition known as Gluten Intolerance. The idea behind Gluten Intolerance is that if you eat
something containing gluten you’ll experience all
sorts of different symptoms associated with your bowels. This can include things like
Diarrhea and Constipation and Cramping and Bloating as well. Now the whole phenomenon
of Gluten Intolerance really began in 2011 when
a paper was published in The American Journal
of Gastroenterology. So right here I have the
exact title of that paper which says, “Gluten causes
gastrointestinal symptoms “in subjects without celiac disease.” Basically, this paper
concluded and I quote, “gluten is indeed a trigger of
gut symptoms and tiredness.” Thus began the Gluten free sensation. But in 2013, Dr. Peter Gibson who is the author of this
study did a follow-up study. Now this is actually a pretty long title so I’m just going to read it off first and then we’re going to
digest it piece by piece. So it says, “No Effects
of Gluten in Patients “With Self-Reported
Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity “After Dietary Reduction of
Fermentable, Poorly Absorbed, “Short-Chain Carbohydrates.” So first we can focus on
this part right over here this Fermentable, Poorly Absorbed, Short-Chain Carbohydrates. We have another word for this and it’s really just an acronym it’s simply known as FODMAPS. The words in this acronym
are actually different from the words here but
it’s the same thing. Now these FODMAPS are
basically just carbohydrates that are known to cause
a lot of the symptoms that I mentioned earlier. The things like cramping, and
diarrhea, and constipation. So this study basically
considered the fact that maybe it’s actually these FODMAPS
instead of the gluten that’s causing these symptoms. So they basically did
mostly the same stuff as the earlier study except
they removed these FODMAPS from the situation. It was kind of a confounding factor and they wanted to eliminate that. Then what they did was they put people on first, gluten filled diets. So I’ll just label that
as positive (+) gluten. And then they changed their
diets to gluten free diets. So I’ll just label that
as minus (-) gluten. And they basically just wanted to look at the effects of this. So if the earlier hypothesis that gluten causes these symptoms is true then their symptoms should improve because you’re putting
them on a gluten free diet. However, they found that there
were No Effects of Gluten. So gluten actually didn’t do anything. It wasn’t responsible for
causing all of those symptoms. Now what does this all mean for us? Well, if you have Celiac
Disease or Grain Allergies you should absolutely avoid consuming anything that contains Gluten in it. However, these conditions are pretty rare and they don’t affect that many people. So for the rest of us, should we adopt this Gluten free diet? Well, it’s true that
these Gluten free diets do tend to be healthy. But that’s not because they lack Gluten it’s because by their very
nature they’re healthy. They don’t contain all
sorts of processed foods and carbohydrates. So because of that and not
because they lack Gluten they are pretty healthy for you. So the jury is still kind of out on whether or not we should
adopt a Gluten free diet. But the current scientific literature probably wouldn’t support
a Gluten free diet.

10 Replies to “What is gluten? | Gastrointestinal system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy”

  1. I really like the sped up version of writing instead of the speaker repeating what they are writing. It's also formatted in a very clear and concise manner. Keep up the good work!

  2. Gluten-free diets are actually not healthier than regular diets containing gluten. Usually, gluten-free products will contain more sugar (carbohydrates) and fats (lipids) than their regular counterparts. This is mostly to make gluten-free foods more edible.

  3. "Not common"? Oh man, name more diseases which have even one in 200 young ppl 😀 On the contrary – it is very common. Less than allergies, yes, but more than most AI.

  4. I don't have celiac disease, but I was milk intolerant, until I went grain free. I can eat milk again without bloating to look like 8 months pregnant. Gluten free has helped me be IBS free. It is also found to reverse heart disease, arthritis, high blood pressure, diabetes and cancer. The food industry doesn't want this out or it would lose them a lot of money.

  5. This video is outdated! Please read the book Grain Brain. There is nothing good about consuming gluten. You can eat gluten free by simply shopping your market’s perimeter. Of course foods marketed as gluten free are unhealthy as all processed foods are whether they’re gluten free or not. Gluten is the root cause of many diseases: arthritis, IBS, Crohn’s, dementia just to name a few!

  6. The neurological symptoms weren't even mentioned in this video! Gluten intolerance can cause unbearable headaches, infertility, mood, and skin disorders. Additionally, the studies that claim Celiacs is rare are not global. They are limited in the populations they are taking into account. I have gluten intolerance. Had it all my life and like everyone else, wheat was a major component of my diet. Once eliminated from diet, I am not living on Ibuprofen any longer.

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