Fecal–oral route | Wikipedia audio article

The fecal–oral route (also called the oral–fecal
route or orofecal route) describes a particular route of transmission of a disease wherein
pathogens in fecal particles pass from one person to the mouth of another person. Main causes of fecal–oral disease transmission
include lack of adequate sanitation (leading to open defecation), and poor hygiene practices. If soil or water bodies are polluted with
fecal material, humans can be infected with waterborne diseases or soil-transmitted diseases. Fecal contamination of food is another form
of fecal-oral transmission. Washing hands properly after changing a baby’s
diaper or after performing anal hygiene can prevent foodborne illness from spreading. The common factors in the fecal-oral route
can be summarized as five Fs: fingers, flies, fields, fluids, and food. Analingus, the sexual practice of licking
or inserting the tongue into the anus of a partner, is another route. Diseases caused by fecal-oral transmission
include diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, polio and hepatitis.==Background=====F-Diagram===
The foundations for the “F-diagram” being used today were laid down in a publication
by WHO in 1958. This publication explained transmission routes
and barriers to the transmission of diseases from the focal point of human feces. Modifications have been made over the course
of history to derive modern-looking F-diagrams. These diagrams are used in many sanitation
publications. They are set up in a way that fecal–oral
transmission pathways are shown to take place via water, hands, arthropods and soil. To make it easier to remember, words starting
with the letter “F” are used for each of these pathways, namely fluids, fingers, flies, food,
fields, fomites (objects and household surfaces). Rather than only concentrating on human feces,
animal feces should also be included in the F-diagram.The sanitation and hygiene barriers
when placed correctly prevent the transmission of an infection through hands, water and food. The F-diagram can be used to show how proper
sanitation (in particular toilets, hygiene, handwashing) can act as an effective barrier
to stop transmission of diseases via fecal–oral pathways.==Examples=====Transmission===
The process of transmission may be simple or involve multiple steps. Some examples of routes of fecal–oral transmission
include: water that has come in contact with feces
(for example due to groundwater pollution from pit latrines) and is then not treated
properly before drinking; by shaking someone’s hand that has been contaminated
by stool, changing a child’s diapers, working in the garden or dealing with livestock or
house pets. food that has been prepared in the presence
of fecal matter; disease vectors, like houseflies, spreading
contamination from inadequate fecal disposal such as open defecation;
poor or absent hand washing after using the toilet or handling feces (such as changing
diapers) poor or absent cleaning of anything that has
been in contact with feces; sexual practices that may involve oral contact
with feces, such as anilingus, coprophilia or “ass to mouth”. eating feces, in children, or in a mental
disorder called coprophagia eating soil (geophagia)===Prevention===One approach to changing people’s behaviors
and stopping open defecation is the community-led total sanitation approach. In this process “live demonstrations” of flies
moving from food to fresh human feces and back are used. This can “trigger” villagers into action.==Diseases==
The list below shows the main diseases that can be passed via the fecal–oral route. They are grouped by the type of pathogen involved
in disease transmission.===Bacteria===
Vibrio cholerae (cholera) Clostridium difficile (pseudomembranous enterocolitis)
Shigella (shigellosis / bacillary dysentery) Salmonella typhii (typhoid fever)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus Escherichia coli
Hepatitis A Hepatitis E
Enteroviruses Norovirus acute gastroenteritis
Poliovirus (poliomyelitis) Rotavirus – Most of these pathogens cause
Entameba histolytica (amoebiasis) Giardia (giardiasis)
Cryptosporidium (cryptosporidiosis) Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis)===Helminths===
Tape worms Ascariasis and other soil transmitted helminthiasis===Related diseases groupings===
Waterborne diseases are diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that most commonly
are transmitted in contaminated fresh water. This is one particular type of fecal-oral
transmission. Neglected tropical diseases also contains
many diseases transmitted via the fecal-oral route.==See also==
Toilet Vector control

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