15.2 Food Safety: Ecoli Salmonella & Listeria

15.2 Food Safety: Ecoli Salmonella & Listeria


– WELCOME TO OUR SECOND SECTION
ON FOOD SAFETY. AND IN THIS SECTION I’M
GOING TO COVER: E. COLI, SALMONELLA AND
LISTERIA. THERE ARE MANY MICROORGANISMS THAT CAN CAUSE
FOODBORNE ILLNESS. I AM JUST CHOOSING THREE
THAT TEND TO BE MORE COMMON. AND YOU MAY HAVE HEARD ABOUT, AT LEAST SOME OF THESE OR
AT LEAST THIS ONE, WHICH I’M GOING TO START WITH,
WHICH IS E. COLI. AND REMEMBER, I TOLD YOU THAT
WE HAVE MICROORGANISMS LIVING IN OUR INTESTINAL TRACK
AND OUR COLON, AND THESE ARE HEALTHY
MICROORGANISMS. WE ACTUALLY HAVE E. COLI LIVING
IN OUR COLON. BUT THERE ARE SPECIFIC
STRAINS OF E. COLI. THIS IS ONE IN PARTICULAR,
THE 0157:H7, THAT IS PARTICULARLY DEADLY. NOW E. COLI INFECTS THE TOXIN, SO IT’S A SUGAR TOXIN,
AND THAT MEANS THAT ONCE IT’S INGEST IN THE BODY IT
ACTUALLY RELEASES THIS TOXIN. NOW THIS TOXIN WILL
END UP BINDING TO THE ENDOTHELIAL LINING
OF BLOOD VESSELS. SO THAT’S THE INSIDE
LINING OF BLOOD VESSELS. AND THEN IT CAUSES THEM THROUGH
A SERIES OF REACTIONS TO ACTUALLY NOT BE ABLE TO
REPRODUCE OR REPLICATE. AND THAT MEANS THAT
THE INSIDE LINING, THE SHELLS ARE ALREADY SHED
AND THEN A NEW LINING IS MADE, SO IT PREVENTS THAT
FROM HAPPENING. THAT MEANS THAT THE CELL BLOOD
VESSEL WALL WILL EVENTUALLY BECOME NOT AS STRONG AND LEAKY
AND RESULT IN HEMORRHAGE. NOW WHAT’S REALLY A LITTLE
BIT SCARY ABOUT THIS, WELL, THEY’RE A COUPLE THINGS THAT
ARE SCARY ABOUT THIS PARTICULAR STRAIN OF E. COLI AND THAT IT’S
A VERY LOW INFECTIVE DOSE. AND THAT MEANS THAT YOU
ONLY NEED A FEW ORGANISMS, A FEW OF THOSE BACTERIA TO
ACTUALLY CAUSE A PROBLEM. OF COURSE, THE MORE BACTERIA
WILL CAUSE A GREATER PROBLEM AND LESS BACTERIA WILL CAUSE LESS,
BUT LESS THAN 10. THAT IS NOT THAT MANY
SO YOU DON’T NEED A LOT. AND THE SYMPTOMS THAT CAN
HAPPEN ARE BLOODY DIARRHEA, INTESTINAL CRAMPING,
DEHYDRATION, KIDNEY FAILURE AND EVEN DEATH. THE DEATHS THAT HAVE OCCURRED
ARE GENERALLY IN THE VERY OLD, THE VERY YOUNG. SO THOSE ARE THOSE WITH
THE EITHER DEVELOPING IMMUNE SYSTEMS OR
WEAKENED IMMUNE SYSTEMS. LIKE I SAID, IT’S A SUGAR
TOXIN THAT BINDS TO THOSE BLOOD VESSEL WALLS
RESULTS IN A HEMORRHAGE. THAT PICTURE ON THE
RIGHT IS BASICALLY WHAT A TOXIN
ESSENTIALLY LOOKS LIKE. SO AGAIN, THIS IS FROM E. COLI. NOW E. COLI ACTUALLY BECAME
A LITTLE BIT FAMOUS, OR I SHOULD SAY INFAMOUS,
BACK IN THE EARLY ’90S AND THIS WAS THE BIG
JACK IN THE BOX SCARE. AND IT HAPPENED IN
MULTIPLE STATES, IT WASN’T JUST ONE AREA OR,
YOU KNOW, OR ONE STATE. THE HAMBURGER PATTIES
WERE UNDERCOOKED AND THE MEAT THAT THE JACK IN
THE BOX PRODUCER HAD PURCHASED WAS INFECTED
WITH THIS E COLI. SO THROUGHOUT THREE DIFFERENT
STATES MULTIPLE PEOPLE, OVER 700 PEOPLE WERE
ACTUALLY INFECTED. FOUR CHILDREN ACTUALLY
DIED AND 178 PEOPLE WERE– PEOPLE WERE PERMANENTLY
INJURED IN THIS EVENT, AND THIS WAS FROM
THE E. COLI-0157:H7. MEAT SAFETY HAS
ACTUALLY GOTTEN A LOT SAFER BECAUSE OF THIS EVENT. NOT THAT THIS WAS A GOOD EVENT,
BUT IT HAS GOTTEN SAFER. AND JACK IN THE BOX
ACTUALLY HAS DONE, YOU KNOW, THEY CAME OUT AT THE TOP
WHEN YOU LOOKED AT FAST FOOD RESTAURANTS FOR
CLEANLINESS AND HEALTH AND SAFETY BECAUSE THEY
DID HAVE THIS SCARE. NOW MOVING ON TO SALMONELLA. SALMONELLA, WE COMMONLY
THINK OF AS BEING IN POULTRY, BUT IT CAN AFFECT
PRODUCE AS WELL. IT’S THE LEADING CAUSE
OF FOODBORNE ILLNESS. BUT LOOK AT THE INFECTIVE DOSE. THIS IS A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENT. YOU NEED A LOT OF
THESE SALMONELLA ORGANISMS TO ACTUALLY
CAUSE ILLNESS. REMEMBER THAT DOUBLING
I WAS TALKING ABOUT, THAT GENERATION TIME WHEN THE
COLONY OF BACTERIA DOUBLES? YOU CAN SEE HOW WHEN IT’S
DOUBLING THAT QUICKLY IT DOESN’T TAKE THAT LONG TO GET UP TO
10,000 OR EVEN 100,000. SO SALMONELLA USUALLY IS A
CLASSIC FOODBORNE ILLNESS WITH THE INTESTINAL CRAMPING
AND THE FLU-LIKE SYMPTOMS. LASTLY, I’M JUST GOING TO
MENTION LISTERIA BECAUSE THIS IS A LITTLE BIT
OF A SCARY BUG AS WELL. AND THIS OCCURS, IT’S NOT GOING TO COME TO YOU
FROM THE RAW MEATS THAT YOU GET, BUT IT’S GOING TO BE
IN THOSE COOKED MEATS. AND WHAT HAPPENS IS SOMEWHERE
IN BETWEEN THE PROCESSING OR SAY THE PACKAGING STEP FROM
WHERE YOU TAKE A COOKED PIECE OF MEAT AND IT GETS PACKAGED AND IT
GETS SENT OUT TO SOMEBODY ELSE, ANOTHER PROCESSOR
THAT GETS OPENED, SLICED INTO SAY, DELI MEAT, AND THEN REPACKAGED
INTO ALL THESE PACKAGES, THAT’S USUALLY WHERE THE
CONTAMINATION HAPPENS. WHY IS THIS DANGEROUS? BECAUSE THIS IS MEAT
YOU’RE NOT COOKING. THIS IS THE DELI MEAT YOU’RE
GOING TO PUT ON TO A SANDWICH. AND IT DOESN’T TAKE THAT– I DON’T HAVE THE
PACKAGES TO THIS ONE, BUT IT DOESN’T TAKE THAT MANY
ALSO TO CAUSE AN ILLNESS. BUT IT IS EASY TO KILL. SO IF IT’S JUST HEATED, IT DOESN’T EVEN
HAVE TO GO 140 DEGREES, IT’S MORE LIKE 125
DEGREES TO KILL LISTERIA. IT’S VERY EASY TO KILL THIS BUG. IT’S JUST THAT IT’S COMING IN
FOODS THAT ARE GENERALLY NOT GOING TO BE HEATED OR NOT
ALWAYS HEATED OR COOKED. ALSO SCARY ABOUT THIS IS IT CAN CAUSE MENINGITIS
AND A MISCARRIAGE. THAT MEANS THAT
PREGNANT WOMEN PROBABLY WANT TO STAY AWAY
FROM DELI MEAT. OR IF YOU’RE EATING DELI
MEAT WHICH, OF COURSE, WE LEARNED THAT DELI
MEAT IS A PROCESSED MEAT, THERE’S BEEN A LOT
OF PROBLEMS WITH IT AND I HOPE YOU’RE
NOT EATING IT. BUT IF YOU ARE AND
YOU’RE PREGNANT, IT REALLY SHOULD BE COOKED. AND THIS IS GOING TO
BE THE END OF OUR SECTION ON THOSE
THREE BACTERIA. AND NEXT ONE WE’RE
GOING TO TALK ABOUT IS HOW YOU ACTUALLY GET THOSE
BACTERIA INTO OUR FOOD.  

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